Sacred Clown Time

Written by Eden H Roquelaire for Twin Peaks Freaks.

DISCLAIMER: Spoilers for Twin Peaks within the article.

"Trickster Parade" by Kelly Moore

“Trickster Parade” by Kelly Moore

The words of the Heyoka are like a lightning bolt which can pierce the heart, for the Heyoka’s words can have a “sharp edge.”

– Wambli Sina Win

Every Twin Peaks fan is familiar with the Native American imagery that appears throughout the series, but it turns out that the tribal influence may go deeper than just inspiring the look of the show: In fact, it may be the source for the central story-line.

The Black Lodge and the Dugpas.

Sacred Clowns are often depicted as painted in black and white.

Sacred Clowns are often depicted as painted in black and white, like the carpet on the floor of the Black Lodge.

There are many correlations between the Dugpas and the beings known as the Heyoka, or Sacred Clowns of Native American culture, that suggest they may have been the source of inspiration for the Black Lodge’s denizens. Some connections include their backwards-speak and use of cryptic words:

Heyókȟa are thought of as being backwards-forwards, upside-down, or contrary in nature. It was manifest by doing things backwards or unconventionally — riding a horse backwards, wearing clothes inside-out, or speaking in a backwards language. For example, if food were scarce, a heyókȟa would sit around and complain about how full he was; during a baking hot heat wave a heyókȟa would shiver with cold and put on gloves and cover himself with a thick blanket.

(Source: Wikipedia – Heyoka)

The Heyoka never tell you something straight out; they make you use your own mental power to learn the meaning behind the words. They use a lack of logic to mock the conventions of our world, and challenge the minds of their disciples. It is interesting to note that the main source of our information on the Dugpas and the Black Lodge is Deputy Tommy “Hawk” Hill, a Native American of an unspecified tribe (it is implied that he may be Blackfoot). This again suggests that they have an origin in Native American lore. Plus, we have seen the Man From Another Place make what is referred to as an “Indian whooping call.” Also take a look at this image of a Heyoka Medicine Man:

“Stanley Good Voice Elk, a heyoka, burns sage to ritually purify his surroundings. In Oglala spirituality, heyokas are recipients of sacred visions who employ clownish speech and behavior to provoke spiritual awareness and “keep balance,” says Good Voice Elk. Through his mask, he channels the power of an inherited spirit, which transforms him into Spider Respects Nothing.” —National Geographic

“Stanley Good Voice Elk, a heyoka, burns sage to ritually purify his surroundings. In Oglala spirituality, heyokas are recipients of sacred visions who employ clownish speech and behavior to provoke spiritual awareness and “keep balance,” says Good Voice Elk. Through his mask, he channels the power of an inherited spirit, which transforms him into Spider Respects Nothing.” —National Geographic

Does it look familiar?

The Jumping Man, seen in Fire Walk With Me.

The Jumping Man, seen in Fire Walk With Me.

That is the so-called “Jumping Man,” who appears in Fire Walk With Me, most notably dancing at the meeting above the convenience store. He carries a stick, perhaps a dowsing rod, and hops around. He is speculated to be a magician or priest. Perhaps he is a Heyoka?

Various Native American tribes have versions of these beings: the Cherokee have the Boogers, the Zuni have the Ne’wekwe, and the Lakota call them the Heyoka.

“The Spirit of perversity and chaos, considered both as a divine entity in its own right, and the effects of that spirit upon humans. The entity is double-faced, showing joy on one side and grief on the other. He is said to be the source of meteors, and in other ways exhibits most of the characteristic heyoka attributes. Mortals who dream of Wakinyan often become heyokas.”

(Source: Obsidian’s Lair “A Lakota Pantheon“)

A person who becomes a Heyoka is one who is inspired by a visit from a Wakinyan or Thunderbird, a powerful spiritual being who is always cloaked in storm clouds. The Thunderbird usually appears to them in a dream, which is considered to be a communication from the Wakan Tanka, the Great Spirit (or Great Mystery) of the Lakota.

The Sacred Clowns are known to do bizarre things that are contrary to our logic, including speak and walking backwards, saying the opposite of what they mean, wearing cold weather clothes in hot climates, laughing when sad, and crying when happy. They are said to be able to interpret dreams. They also have a connection to celestial bodies and electricity, as they are associated with lightning, and the legendary Thunderbird.

“The heyoka were different in three primary ways from the other sorts of clowns. They were truly unpredictable, and could do the unexpected or tasteless even during the most solemn of occasions. Moreso than other clowns, they really seemed to be insane. Also, they were thought to be more inspired by trans-human supernatural forces (as individuals driven by spirits rather than group conventions), and to have a closer link to wakan or power than other clowns. Not surprisingly, these unique differences were seen as the result of their having visions of Thunderbird, a unique and transforming experience.”

Steve Mizrach, Thunderbird and Trickster

The rites of sacred clowning are also practiced in Tibetan Buddhism, which, as we know, has a powerful influence on Coop. A clown in Tibetan Buddhism would be to do absurd things – wear shoes on one’s head, call a stone soft, wear rags to meet a prince and expensive clothes to meet a pauper. The method behind this is to teach disciples of Buddhism to think outside the bonds of the reality we are familiar with, to consider less orthodox explanations, and encourage a sense of wonder and curiosity. When one assumes they know everything there is to know, then the mind is not open to learn.

The Laughing Buddha

The Laughing Buddha

“The clown does not fit in, indeed refuses to fit into, the patterns and constructions of the conventional world, representing some other order of being. The clown gets everything wrong: dress, decorum, logic, speech, gestures, and movements; yet in this wrongness is a rightness of another sort. Out of this foolishness rises another level of wisdom.”

(Source: The Laughing Buddha: Zen and the Comic Spirit by Conrad Hyers

In its own way, David Lynch’s work itself does this, by way of his absurdist humor, which sometimes occurs at the most inappropriate of times. It makes us laugh amidst the horror and tragedy going on around us. This act of unsettling our minds and giving rise to doubt causes us to reconsider what we believe is happening, and what it means. In a sense, it forces us to search for new meaning in the familiar.

Let us consider also some of David Lynch’s music. Here’s the cover for his album The Big Dream:

David Lynch's "The Big Dream"

David Lynch’s “The Big Dream”

It’s a man being struck by a lightning bolt, and of course, the title of the album is “The Big Dream.” This implies it is a dream of some importance, perhaps a “divine revelation” of sorts. Could this cover be a representation of a revelation from the Thunderbird, in the form of a dream?

Now you might be saying, “But the Dugpas aren’t good beings; they aren’t teachers or benefactors to humanity.” I would argue that the Dugpas are neither good nor bad; some go rogue, as BOB did, but the Man From Another Place has been shown helping Cooper, as has the Giant. I would say that this is because they had a common interest, and therefore could be compelled to help Cooper. BOB is the only one, I would venture to say, who evokes evil. The others who dwell in the Lodge are amoral, and only act in their own self-interest. This in and of itself ties in with the sporadic nature of the Sacred Clown teachers, who work with opposites and contrast. Both the Dugpas and Sacred Clowns fit into the Trickster category of deities and spirits, along with characters such as Loki, Anansi, Crow, and Prometheus. Often these beings are shown as acting dangerously and amorally, but sometimes these actions also benefit humans, as shown in the tale of Prometheus stealing fire. Other times, the character may start out doing more harmless fun, but eventually graduate to all-out chaos and evil, such as Loki and his plot to murder the light god Balder. Trickster spirits are never easy to pin down; as soon as you think you have them figured out, they change their nature.

That brings us to another David Lynch album, “Crazy Clown Time”:

David Lynch's "Crazy Clown Time"

David Lynch’s “Crazy Clown Time”

The lyrics to this song portray an animalistic party, full of drinking, spitting and stripping. This ties into our second definition of clowns in Lynchian symbolism. It is important to note that David Lynch has connected his Clown symbolism with base and degrading behavior, rather than the “Sacred Clown” archetype, which is about spiritual evolution. Lynch talks about how negative behavior, such as irresponsible drinking, drugs and partying, throws the soul off-balance and causes spiritual disintegration: Deep down, you become depressed and angry, though you continue to suppress these feelings with the negative actions that are causing them in the first place. It is a vicious cycle, or, as Lynch calls it, a “Suffocating Rubber Clown Suit.”

“I call that depression and anger the Suffocating Rubber Clown Suit of Negativity. It’ssuffocating, and that rubber stinks. But once you start meditating and diving within, the clown suit starts to dissolve. You finally realize how putrid was the stink when it starts to go. Then, when it dissolves, you have freedom.”

(Source: The Utne Reader, “Deep Thoughts by David Lynch“)

A good example of Lynch’s use of this negative clown archetype would be its association with Jacques Renault and Leo Johnson, two of the most notorious party people in Twin Peaks:

Leo isn't clowning around... well, maybe a little, actually.

Leo isn’t clowning around… well, maybe a little, actually.

The clown painting found in Jacques Renault's apartment.

The clown painting found in Jacques Renault’s apartment.

And this symbolism isn’t limited to Twin Peaks. Remember Ben singing about the Candy Colored Clown in Frank Booth’s favorite song?

Dean Stockwell ("Ben") sings Roy Orbison's "In Dreams" to Frank Booth in Blue Velvet

Dean Stockwell (“Ben”) sings Roy Orbison’s “In Dreams” to Frank Booth in Blue Velvet

And the way Frank paints his lips when he listens to the same song later?

Frank Booth

Frank Booth smears his lips with red lipstick while listening to a song about a “candy colored clown”

These characters are both associated with drugs, violence, and all-around debased behavior, just as Jacques and Leo are. This is their “Suffocating Rubber Clown Suit of Negativity” that they bury themselves in rather than facing their demons and evolving as people.

Both Frank and Killer BOB are used in their respective stories as representations of “the evil that men do,” as Jeffrey asks Sandy in a philosophical moment, “Why are there people like Frank in the world?” Sandy tells him that love and light is the only thing that can and will destroy the darkness in the hearts of humanity. In this way, we can associate the characters of Frank and BOB with each other, and thus connect the clown imagery this way. BOB is also always depicted as smiling and laughing, and is described as “eager for fun” in this poem:

He is BOB, eager for fun. He wears a smile, everybody run!”

-MIKE the One-Armed Man

Of course, BOB’s idea of fun is one of evil and debauchery, spreading the suffocating negativity everywhere he goes.

So it’s inarguable that Lynch has used this negative clown symbol before, but does that invalidate the possibility that he has also used the Sacred Clown symbol? I will leave conclusions up to you, but I personally think that the evidence points to uses of both meanings. After all, Lynch has a well-known infatuation with duality and double-edged meanings, and the connections between the Dugpas and the Sacred Clowns are notable enough not to be ignored. Take another look at the scene “Above the Convenience Store”:

The meeting "Above the Convenience Store"

The meeting “Above the Convenience Store”

Definitely looks like it could be the Black Lodge’s idea of a party, where they gather to feed on the Garmonbozia that BOB has collected. There is the Jumping Man in the corner, who, as we discussed, may be a Heyoka. Perhaps he is leading the feeding ceremony. BOB is sitting at the table, throwing his head back in uproarious laughter.

As a final point, let us discuss the Greek God Dionysus. He is the God of wine, revelry, feasting, ecstasy, and is the all-around life of the party. He and his parties are dual-natured: They can bring about both horrible violence and beautiful knowledge. Many of the parties end with his followers, the Bacchantes, ripping apart uninitiated passersby, as was the case with Orpheus. However, this was also a cult of the secrets of the Earth, where one could learn Nature Magick and arcane wisdom. There was obvious risk in being involved in this cult, but there were benefits that could make those risks justifiable. Similarly, Cooper is taking a sizable risk in entering the Black Lodge; however, if he succeeds, the benefits could be worth it. If he loses, he will be ripped apart, spiritually.

Trickster Spirits are beings of both chaos and wisdom: There are some things that you can only learn from these beings, and yet to learn from them takes tremendous risk. However, it is often in our times of darkness, strife, and chaos that we have our revelations, and realize important things about ourselves. It is through trial that we evolve, and through constant questioning that we learn. The Sacred Clowns and Tricksters of various cultures embody that chaotic path to wisdom.

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Why Donna and James Were Integral to Twin Peaks

James and Donna.

James and Donna.

Written by Eden H Roquelaire for Twin Peaks Freaks.

Warning: Contains spoilers for Twin Peaks Season 2.

James and Donna are two characters who get a lot of heat from fans, mostly for their naivete; but that naivete may have been a saving force in the series. They certainly have a lot of scenes that are rather difficult to defend (such as James leaving Donna alone in the woods after hearing that there is a murderer still on the loose, who just killed their friend), but it is necessary to remember, when considering James and Donna, that they are the absolute archetype of the young and naive, who believe love will solve everything, and who behave selfishly without realizing it. While some find these characteristics to be irksome, I believe, ultimately, it helped with creating the overall ethos of Twin Peaks, which we all love so much. Without a little light in the darkness, the atmosphere of Twin Peaks would be too oppressive: That is why it was so important to have small points of light peppered throughout the darkness, including the offbeat humor, Cooper’s strict morality, and the little bits of tender sweetness displayed by the characters.

Donna, inconsolable after hearing of Laura's death, with a circle of comforters.

Donna, inconsolable after hearing of Laura’s death, with a circle of comforters.

Out of all the characters, Donna and James, along with Mr and Mrs Palmer, are probably the most devastated by the loss of Laura, and their grief moves them to the conviction that, as the only ones who really loved Laura, they are the only ones who can properly investigate her murder. This conviction can be attributed to the belief that love can and will solve everything. It is important to note that this is how the characters start out, and the progression of their arc is affected by the way this conviction is slowly destroyed through the course of the series, as more and more horrible things come to light, and James and Donna must face that their love cannot save their world.

Donna and James are a representation of what the town of Twin Peaks is at its heart, and what it stands to lose if Cooper does not save it from BOB. They represent innocence, naivete, and love. Both make many bad and rash decisions, but that is characteristic of being young and inexperienced. Their love story was purposely schmaltzy and over-the-top because it had so much darkness and brutality to balance out. I also took it as a bit of a parody of the over-the-top drama of teen exploitation classic Rebel Without a Cause.

”Donna was a small sad, dull, boring, routine and comatose,” says Lara Flynn. ”But there’s a lot of glow underneath. She’s one of those girls who took her teenage years a small bit too seriously. Everything Donna does is unequivocally urgent. It’s life or death. Like Natalie Wood in Splendor in a Grass.”

-Lara Flynn Boyle (Source: Breaking News Today)

James Dean and Natalie Wood in Rebel Without a Cause.

Dean and Wood, Rebel Without a Cause.

James Dean and Natalie Wood in “Rebel Without a Cause.”

Natalie Wood and Warren Beatty in Splendor in the Grass, a tale of teenage heartbreak.

Natalie Wood and Warren Beatty in Splendor in the Grass, a tale of teenage heartbreak.

James was not necessarily your classic “James Dean – Rebel Without a Cause,” nor was Donna his Natalie Wood to a T, but both were obviously built off of these classic, stereotypical roles: The Bad Boy Biker, and the Good Girl in Love Gone Bad. James slowly becomes disillusioned with his home town and eventually drives away, while Donna becomes more and more distrustful as the boy she loves leaves her, and she finds out her parents have been lying to her. Their characters fit into the neo-noir/neo-50s style that David Lynch is so fond of, and their character progression reflects the way the town itself is slipping from innocence as this dark force begins to corrupt it.

James and Donna with Maddy (dressed as Laura)

James and Donna with Maddy (dressed as Laura)

When Maddy starts to “come between them,” it is another symbol of the corrupting force of evil dwelling within the town, which is turning Maddy into Laura to cause strife, and eventually kills her before she can escape. Maddy’s arrival also stirs up feelings of jealousy in Donna, who unconsciously starts to see her as Laura, and thus as someone who could steal James away from her. In her desperation to keep James, Donna begins to try and act more like Laura — almost as if she is trying to “Out-Laura” Maddy. The consequence is oddly humorous, especially as a woman who has done something very similar and equally as foolish. People like to exasperatedly look down on her character for this arc, but it always served as one of my favorite Donna story-lines, as it represents a phase that many young women have gone through during the desperation of young love.

Badass Donna.

Badass Donna.

James and Donna also keep us tied to Laura, who is arguably the main character of Twin Peaks, or at least the beginning and the end of its story. More importantly, James and Donna keep us connected to the Light side of Laura, the part of her that was innocent and longed to do good, and to be loved and helped. Characters like Jacques, Ben Horne, Blackie, Leo and BOB remind us of the Dark side of Laura, all the secrets she kept, all the reprehensible things she got into and that eventually killed her. If Twin Peaks was only the story of a bad girl who was murdered as a consequence of being lewd or doing drugs, it would be depressing, and rather shallow. However, when you also pay mind to the sweet and loving side of Laura, the side that Donna knew best, the side that James loved, the story becomes more compelling, and more of a debate not about what is good and what is bad, and not a tale of punishment for perceived wrongdoings, but a story that delves deep into human nature, and the constant battle in our psyches between our light (public) selves and our dark (secret) selves.

What makes us who we are? Is it how we act when no one is there to tell us not to? Or the way we act when we are moved by the presence of our loved ones? The answer is, both, and more. Everything we do makes up who we are as a whole, and Twin Peaks is a work that brilliantly investigates this identity crisis, and the striving for wholeness.

When Twin Peaks was prematurely curtailed in 1991, James was out exploring the world and perhaps discovering the light again for himself, while Donna was facing more of the harsh darkness of the truth, learning that her real father is the despicable business man Benjamin Horne, whom her mother was having an affair with. Donna’s father, enraged, shoves Ben, who falls and hits his head. Afterwards, we see Doc Hayward tending to the injured Cooper, and not in jail for murder, which is a good indication that Ben is probably still alive. However, what this means for the future of the Haywards is debatable. The last we see of Donna, she is screaming hysterically, halfway out the door to leave her family home. Was Donna going to find James? Would she stay in Twin Peaks, or would she go on travels of her own? Would she end up getting back together with Mike? Hopefully we will get some answers soon…

James and Donna.

James and Donna.